Appropriate Treatment

Cesarean deliveries per 100 low-risk births, 2010-2020

Source: KFF analysis of National Center for Health Statistics reports

Cesarean deliveries per 100 low-risk births, by race/ethnicity, 2019 and 2020

Note: Rates for All and for each racial and ethnic category were statistically significantly higher in 2020 than in 2019 (p <.05). A cesarean delivery is classified as low-risk when a single infant is born head-first at full term to a mother who hasn’t previously given birth. However, it’s important to note that performing low-risk cesarean sections is deemed as inappropriate care.

Source: Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJK. Births in the United States, 2020. National Center for Health Statistics, no. 418. CDC.

Percentage of adults aged 18 years or older with diagnosed diabetes reporting any diabetes medication use (pills, insulin, or both), by sex, 2000-2019

Source: KFF analysis of CDC Diabetes Atlas Data

Percent of inpatient readmissions within 30 days of an acute hospital stay, among Medicare beneficiaries 65 and older, 2007-2019

Source: CMS Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File

Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) in acute care hospitals, by Standardized Infection Ratio (SIR), 2015-2021

Notes: CLABSI: Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection. CAUTI: Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection. SSI: Surgical Site Infection. MRSA: Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus. VAE: Ventilator Associated Events. SIR compares actual infection rates to predicted rates adjusting for factors associated with infection incidence. More information available at

Source: KFF Analysis of National Healthcare Safety Network Data

Age-sex standardized hospital admission rate per 100,000 population for asthma, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes, ages 15 and over, 2016 or nearest year

Data for Australia and Switzerland are from 2015.

Source: KFF analysis of OECD data

Percentage of hospital patients with heart attack given fibrinolytic medication within 30 minutes of arrival, 2005-2015

Source: AHRQ NHQDR data

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